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A group of fungal metabolites that inhibit the addition of G actin to a nucleation site and therefore perturb labile microfilament arrays. Cytochalasin B inhibits at around 1 microgram/ml but at about 5 _g/ml begins to inhibit glucose transport. Cytochalasin D affects only the microfilament system and is therefore preferable
Cytochalasin D is an alkaloid drug produced by the mold Helminthosporium sp. It is a potent inhibitor of actin-dependant cellular processes such as cell motility and cell division. Cycochalasin is also said to be a antimitotic drug.
Cytochalasin D, an alkaloid produced by Helminthosporium and other molds, also blocks actin dependant processes in cells. However, cells treated with cytochalasin round up and the lamellipodia and microvilli disappear. The total F-actin content of treated cells diminishes as stress fibers and cortical thin filaments are no longer visible in the microscope. Thus, cytochalasin D is believed to bind to G actin and prevent polymerization of actin monomers. Existing F-actin fibers then depolymerize as the effective concentration of free G-actin becomes limiting. In some types of cells, binding of cytochalasin D to G-actin also results in proteolytic degradation of monomeric actin.
Cytochalasin A acts as an inhibitor of glucose transport and actin polymerization
Cytochalasin B acts as a microtubule inhibitor. Also induces cellular DNA Fragmentation
Cytochalasin C acts as a potent inhibitor of actin filament and contractile microfilaments
Cytochalasin D acts as a potent inhibitor of actin filament and contractile microfilaments. Also shown to protect Hippocampal neurons from Amyloid beta-Peptide Toxicity
Cytochalasin E inhibits angiogenesis & tumor growth. Enhances
PKC-dependent process of secretion. Does not inhibit glucose transport.
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